排列三五码复式 3d怎样做七码复式必中 3d复式玩法介绍 体彩超级大乐透复式票9+2 复式彩票怎样买 双色球复式9加5多少钱 选举复式选票 双色球复式8加1中4加1 大乐透复式6十2 双色球复式中奖多不多 双色球复式7+3 大乐透复式注数如何计算器 胆拖蓝球复式 11选5任选5复式 3的4码复式玩法规则

The Science of Synthetic Oils

    The main difference between synthetic motor oil and conventional motor oil is found intheir molecular structure. In a mineral oil, the molecules come from organic, naturalmaterials,and as we know,nature isn't always consistent. There can sometimes be a fewoddball molecules in mineral oils. Synthetic oils,on the other hand,were created byscientists in a lab. The molecules are uniform, and they line up like good soldiers inside ofyour engine.

    There are three basic parts to synthetic motor oil:

    ·The base oil

    ·Performance additives,which come in powder form

    ·The carrier oil that disperses those powdered performance additives throughout thebase oil

    Synthetic Oil Indexes

    There are a few terms that come up with synthetic oils that you should know.

    Viscosity Index:This measures the effect of temperature on oil viscosity, or the oil'sthickness and ability to protect the engine. When oil is heated, it becomes thinner;whenit's cooled, it becomes thicker. If the oil is too thin or too thick,the oil can't do its jobproperly. A high viscosity index means the oil doesn't change too much, no matter whatthe temperature inside the engine may be. In a perfect world, the viscosity of the oilwouldn't change at all and would provide optimum protection under any conditions.

    Total Base Number; The "base" in this context is the opposite of "acid.,,The totalbase number measures the oil's ability to withstand acid buildup in the engine.

    NOACK Volatility Number: Volatile compounds are unstable and tend to vaporizewhen exposed to heat,and this test measures that tendency.  As temperatures rise,smaller molecules vaporize,leaving behind larger molecules that can make oil moresluggish and less viscous. The lower the NOACK volatility number, the better;it meansthere are fewer molecules being lost, which means fewer top-offs at the local lube shop.

    In all of these tests,synthetic oils perform better than their mineral oil counterparts,thanks to those uniform molecules. Sure,lab testing's great, but how do these oilsperform in the real world? Let's explore the advantages of synthetic oil.

    Synthetic Oils Status Today

    The motor oil market today operates at three levels. Mineral oils are considered good;blending mineral and synthetic oils is better; and purely synthetic oils are deemed as thebest. There isn't a standard definition of synthetic oil in the United States:Some syntheticoils actually use synthetic oils as the base, while others use a highly refined mineral oil asthe base.

    The best synthetic oils are making only small advances these days, while the lowerrungs of the motor oil ladder are improving quickly. The biggest differences are in theadditives in synthetic oils. As an example, specialty motor oil company Royal Purple hasfound a way to increase the film strength of synthetic oil,which protects where metalcontacts metal inside theengine.

    Some of the advantages of synthetics include:

    ·Better gas mileage

    ·Longer times between oil changes

    ·Better cold-weather starts

    ·Ability to clean out sludgy deposits in the engine

    There aren't many disadvantages of using synthetic oils,but they do exist. Syntheticoils cost around 6 to 10 times the price of conventional motor oils. To make mattersworse,synthetic oils will clean out the deposits that may be holding a weak seal together.This could lead to an engine oil leak that may cause myriad safety problems and cost you alot of money to fix as well.

    While we're at it, we should bust a few synthetic oil myths:

    You can't switch back to mineral oil after using a synthetic oil:You can switch asoften as you like, with no harm done.

    Synthetics are too expensive:They also protect an engine better and need to bechanged less often,which may make the expense of the oil worth those few extra dollars.

    Only high-performance and ultra-luxury cars need synthetics:Any car can use andbenefit from synthetic oil's additives and longer time between oil changes.

    Synthetics damage seals:“A synthetic oil won't create a leak,”said David Canitz,technical services manager at Royal Purple, "but it will find any marginal seals due to lackof maintenance.”

    The Future of Synthetic Oils

    In the past years, the goal of the automotive industry was to build bigger, faster andmore powerful vehicles. That's changing in the twenty-first century, as the concern ofconsumers,governments,and industries is moving to increased efficiency and reducedemissions,especially in the U. S.,Europe,and Japan.

    However,make no mistake:Horsepower is still important.  Modern engines arecapable of putting out massive power, and the numbers are increasing(the BugattiVeyron, for example, has over 1,000 hp).But the question is becoming one of powerdensity, or the need to build smaller, more efficient engines capable of increased power.That's one of the roles of lubricants going forward. High-quality synthetic oil can enablemanufacturers to decrease the size of the oil sump required for the engine, run the engineat hotter temperatures and use turbochargers as well.

    As cars move toward using alternative fuels,synthetic oil makers are shifting theirscope. Electric vehicles,for example,might not need motor oil,but they come withlubricated bearings and any gearboxes would also need to be lubed. Even the power plantthat generates the electricity that charges the vehicles will need industrial-grade syntheticoils for the moving parts of its machinery.

    As the government mandates emissions improvements,oil manufacturers will havemake significant investments to implement the necessary changes一to the tune of tens ofmillions of dollars in research and testing. However,even as the future of the automotiveindustry remains a bit of a mystery, the future of synthetic oils seems assured.

汽车英语 相关文章
汽车标志

关于我们 | 网站导航 | 地图文件 | 友情链接 | 联系我们

驾驶员试题网:国内领先的学车类网站,专注于驾驶员理论考试,超越驾驶员考试!Beyond DriverExam

Copyright © 2007-2019 www.wmqcn.live

双色球8十9复式多少钱
排列三五码复式 3d怎样做七码复式必中 3d复式玩法介绍 体彩超级大乐透复式票9+2 复式彩票怎样买 双色球复式9加5多少钱 选举复式选票 双色球复式8加1中4加1 大乐透复式6十2 双色球复式中奖多不多 双色球复式7+3 大乐透复式注数如何计算器 胆拖蓝球复式 11选5任选5复式 3的4码复式玩法规则